Her name was Sarah Hale, and out of all of her prestigious accomplishments, you most likely know her for a little old poem she wrote called Mary Had a Little Lamb. Hale was like the Martha Stewart of the 19th century. She was an editor for Lady’s Book magazine, where she gave Edgar Allen Poe one of his first big breaks and published his poem.
Beyond being an arbiter of literature and style, Sarah Hale is also the reason we celebrate Thanksgiving as a nation. Growing up in New England, Hale had celebrated Thanksgiving her entire life. The rest of the nation celebrated the holiday sporadically, and typically with localized customs. In fact, many southern states refused to celebrate Thanksgiving as it was viewed as a north eastern holiday. Hale was determined to change that.
For 17 years, she wrote to five sitting presidents asking them to make a proclamation recognizing Thanksgiving as a national holiday. While several presidents made declarations about Thanksgiving, it was never fully recognized as a holiday until 1863 when Hale wrote to Abraham Lincoln urging him to make the last Thursday of November the official holiday. Lincoln instantly recognized the importance of establishing a national, unifying holiday that gave thanks and praise.
On October 3, 1863, Lincoln made an official proclimation in which he stated:
“The year that is drawing toward its close has been filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies. To these bounties, which are so constantly enjoyed that we are prone to forget the source from which they come, others have been added, which are of so extraordinary a nature that they cannot fail to penetrate and soften the heart which is habitually insensible to the ever-watchful providence of Almighty God.
In the midst of a civil war of unequaled magnitude and severity, which has sometimes seemed to foreign states to invite and provoke their aggressions, peace has been preserved with all nations, order has been maintained, the laws have been respected and obeyed, and harmony has prevailed everywhere, except in the theater of military conflict; while that theater has been greatly contracted by the advancing armies and navies of the Union.
Needful diversions of wealth and of strength from the fields of peaceful industry to the national defense have not arrested the plow, the shuttle, or the ship; the ax has enlarged the borders of our settlements, and the mines, as well of iron and coal as of the precious metals, have yielded even more abundantly than heretofore. Population has steadily increased, notwithstanding the waste that has been made in the camp, the siege, and the battlefield, and the country, rejoicing in the consciousness of augmented strength and vigor, is permitted to expect continuance of years with large increase of freedom.
No human counsel hath devised, nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things. They are the gracious gifts of the Most High God, who while dealing with us in anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy.
It has seemed to me fit and proper that they should be solemnly, reverently, and gratefully acknowledged as with one heart and one voice by the whole American people. I do, therefore, invite my fellow-citizens in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next as a Day of Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the heavens. And I recommend to them that, while offering up the ascriptions justly due to Him for such singular deliverances and blessings, they do also, with humble penitence for our national perverseness and disobedience, commend to His tender care all those who have become widows, orphans, mourners, or sufferers in the lamentable civil strife in which we are unavoidably engaged, and fervently implore the interposition of the Almighty hand to heal the wounds of the nation, and to restore it, as soon as may be consistent with the Divine purposes, to the full enjoyment of peace, harmony, tranquility, and union.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United Stated States to be affixed.
Done at the city of Washington, this third day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-eighth.”
Sarah Hale was just shy of her 75th birthday. We’ve been celebrating the holiday ever since.